Hortus USA

IntroductionDry DipTabletsHortus iBAPlant SelectionPlant CareCutting SelectionTechniquesSite Search

> Hortus USA Website for Small Screens

To make KIBA Rooting Solutions and IBA Rooting Solutions (alcohol free) use Hortus IBA Water Soluble Salts
ON-LINE Calculator to find the Weight of Hortus IBA Water Soluble Salts for any Rate and Liquid Volume:
On-Line Calculator best viewed on Mobile Devices

On-LIne Calculator best viewed on Computer Screens

Use Rooting Hormones, or Not? Multiple Applications May Be Best

(DOWNLOAD PDF)

Plant growers know when propagating plants from cuttings, rooting hormones are essential to produce quality roots. The question may come up, if one rooting hormone application is good, are two or more applications better?

Plant propagation from cuttings can be performed using rooting hormones by either basal or foliar methods. Basal methods use either dry power rooting hormones or rooting solutions. Foliar methods use aqueous IBA (K-IBA) rooting solutions on leafy cuttings in the growing state.
Traditionally these methods have been used by one application.Improving single rooting hormone application, secondary foliar applications may enhance the rooting of slow-to-root cuttings, and may level crops that have difference in growth. The first rooting hormone application, at time of sticking, may be performed by any foliar or basal method. Secondary applications are performed by spraying on leaves by the Spray Drip Down Method. Secondary applications are used on cuttings already in media; subsequent sprays do not disturb the cuttings. Secondary applications have been successful at ten days or two weeks after the first application. Also successful are three day applications in sequence directly after sticking.

Many factors must be considered to develop single or multiple rooting hormone applications.For plants propagated from cuttings, the cuttings must be taken from carefully maintained stock plants. Rooting hormone applications improve root formation on un-rooted (see the Ball study) and rooted cuttings. Juvenile cuttings root at lower rooting hormone rates as compared with mature cuttings (see the Ficus study ). To select the optimal rooting hormone rates, trials must be made at low to high rates (see the Ficus and Osteospermum studies). The first rooting hormone application may be performed by any basal or foliar method. Secondary IBA rooting solution applications must be foliar by the Spray Drip Down Method using aqueous solutions made using Hortus IBA Water Soluble Salts. First and secondary foliar spray applications may be at the same rate (see rates, methods and products below). There are positives to use secondary applications with no apparent negatives. When using secondary applications, herbaceous plant cuttings may perform better when using first application at time of sticking and secondary applications after ten days (see the Osteospermum study). Woody plant cuttings may perform better when using first application at time of sticking and secondary applications after two week intervals. Alternately, after sticking, application near the time of sticking and again on the second and third days after (see the Decker study). Secondary foliar applications on rooted cuttings may be used to level crops. Rooted transplants may benefit from foliar spray where root generation is stimulated.

Four studies are attached

The first three studies used IBA rooting solutions made using Hortus IBA Water Soluble Salts

"Use Rooting Hormone or Eat Ice Cream?" (Grower Talks) by Ball FloraPlant technical advisors, give reasons for using rooting hormones.

An Osteospermum study, by Dr. P. Allen Hammer, shows how optimum IBA rooting solution rates are selected and the effect of two solution applications.

Dr. Fred Davies study on Ficus pumila (based upon his thesis) describes the efficacy of foliar applied aqueous IBA rooting solutions on root formation concerning cutting maturity. It also discusses differences in root formation related to time-based applications.

"Foliar Applied Rooting Hormones"(IPPS presentation), by Brian Decker, describes multiple foliar applications in woody plant propagation.

Some growers feel there is no need to use rooting hormones when propagating plants despite obtaining poor roots. They feel any roots are enough. Poor cutting roots result in poor plants. Applications of rooting hormones to the cuttings result in high quality uniform roots.

The Ball FloraPlant article says: "Is it worth it? Please trial under your propagation conditions to check." "So, in conclusion, if you want to root cuttings as fast as Rickey Henderson steals bases, you should use rooting hormone. I think that you should start a trial today-even on crops that don't require rooting hormone to see if you can root faster, high-quality liners. Our conclusion was that IBA spray at 100 ppm [for the crops studied] gave the best rooting results while providing the lowest input cost during stick."

Ball FloraPlant scientists used IBA rooting solutions made with Hortus IBA Water Soluble Salts.

Dr. Hammer's Osteospermum herbaceous plant study was to find the optimum IBA rooting hormone rate and secondary spray timing. Trial IBA rooting solution rates were from low to very high. The photos taken on the 21st day after sticking show the rate and timing efficacy.
Application was by foliar applied aqueous IBA rooting solutions made with Hortus IBA Water Soluble Salts. The study compares: one application at time of sticking. one application at time of sticking, and a second application on the tenth day after sticking.
The first and supplementary applications were at the same rate. The untreated control cuttings had small roots. Trial treated cuttings showed variable roots related to the IBA rooting solution rates. For the crop studied, optimal roots were achieved when the cuttings were treated at time of sticking and also the tenth day, using a rooting solution rate of 600 ppm IBA.

Dr. Davies' Ficus pumila study used either one foliar aqueous IBA rooting solution application at time of sticking or one application several days after sticking. The study states: "Adventitious root formation was stimulated with foliar application of indolebutyric acid (IBA)." Dr. Davies' first step was to do "an experiment to establish optimum IBA concentration required for rooting." "All growth regulators were applied as aqueous sprays." Juvenile vs. mature cuttings,"Lower IBA levels were required for optimal rooting in juvenile compared with mature LBC [leaf bud cuttings]." For the crop studied, noticing rooting differences based upon type of cutting, "Hormonal effects during rooting stages: Percentage rooting in IBA pretreated cuttings was unaffected by additional IBA at any of the 3 time intervals after insertion, however, root length was reduced in all treatments. In juvenile LBC receiving no treatment, later IBA applications increased rooting in all dates, but in mature cuttings only the first or second application period was stimulatory."

Brian Decker's studies involved the propagation of woody plant cuttings. The study states: Spray Protocol for IBA Spray Application: Use a Hortus IBA Water Soluble Salts solution. Use a flag marker to mark each days sticking progress to track the 3 day spray rotation. All Hormone applications occur in early morning. Stomata are open and cuttings are generally not in moisture stress. Improve root formation during positive trials at either when spraying three days in a row after sticking, or spraying at three times weekly after sticking.

The first and daily secondary applications were at the same rate. Decker also used an alternate method, applying soon after sticking with a secondary application after about two weeks. These techniques gave cuttings stronger root mass compared with single treated cuttings. Extending Decker's results, later weekly applications may improve the roots of slow-to-root cuttings.

Discussion on optimum cuttings and use of rooting hormones by single or multiple application

The need for single or multiple rooting hormone applications is related to cutting quality. The best quality cuttings must be selected when propagating using rooting hormones. Juvenile cuttings are preferred. It is first necessary to determine the optimal rate by performing a block of trials on un-rooted cuttings using low to high rates as seen in the Osteospermum study.

When performing rate trials on herbaceous cuttings from off-shore plantations, it may be possible to determine standard optimal rates.
Plantations maintain juvenile stock, discarding old plants.
Rates may be specific to varieties but not necessarily suitable for the entire species.
Cultivars not “needing” multiple sprays or higher dose of K-IBA Hortus IBA Water Soluble Salts® rooting solutions may not show problems, yet have positive results.
Woody cuttings have an additional variable as seen in the Ficus study.

Juvenile cuttings taken early in the season require lower rates than mature cuttings taken later in the season.
Mature cuttings may not have as much reaction to application when applied later in the rooting cycle.

The strategy to perform multiple solution applications has merit. It needs to be tested on various plant varieties.

To be determined, if a specific species or variety has low rooting ability then multiple applications may be less likely to be effective, or may be timing dependent.
The results might not be the same within a variety, even by color variation.

Secondary rooting hormone application may be beneficial if after one application is it found cuttings are slow-to-root or have a low rooting percentage.

Trials must be made to compare a single application method with secondary applications.
For secondary applications always use the foliar Spray Drip Down Method® using Hortus IBA Water Soluble Salts® rooting solutions.
For all applications the Spray Drip Down Method may be most effective and convenient.
Growers rooting many crops and cultivars at one time may find it is complicated to spray each cultivar with a specific rooting solution rate that may be optimal for that cultivar. Spraying all cultivars with the rate that works for the most difficult cultivar is not detrimental for the better rooting cultivar, and easier for the grower.

To trial secondary applications, for herbaceous and woody plant cuttings first treat by any method, near or at the time of sticking. For secondary applications select either of these ways:

> First treat then repeat with sprays at about ten day to two week intervals.
> First treat then spray the cuttings two additional days in a row.
When transplanting young rooted plantlets to improve root generation and root mass:
> Rooted transplants, including grass divisions, may be treated both first and secondary by the foliar Spray Drip Down Method. Repeat spray in about two week intervals. Foliar rooting solution rates are similar to those used for initial rooting.

To answer the question, if one rooting hormone application is good, are two or more applications better? It is worth trying!

___________________

Rates, Methods and Products Used in Multiple Rooting Hormone Applications K-IBA is the water soluble form of IBA.
Used here, "rooting solution" is a "rooting hormone" solution.

Dry Dip Products, Method, and Trial Rates

For the first IBA rooting hormone application, one option is by the Dry Dip Method using an IBA rooting hormone powder. Some cuttings root best using Dry Dip powders.

Rooting Hormone Powder Products
> Rhizopon® AA #1 (0.1% IBA) for easy-to-root cuttings
> Rhizopon® AA #2 (0.3% IBA) the intermediate all purpose rooting hormone for easy to more difficult-to-root cuttings.
> Rhizopon® AA #3 (0.8% IBA) for more difficult-to-root cuttings

Dry Dip Method (only used for a first rooting hormone application)
The basal ends of the cuttings are dipped about 3/4 inch into the powder then stuck in media Dry Dip Powder

Trial Rates
Annual plant cuttings: Rhizopon AA #1, or Rhizopon AA #2
Perennial plant cuttings: Rhizopon AA #1, Rhizopon AA #2, or Rhizopon AA #3
Woody plant cuttings: Rhizopon AA #2, or Rhizopon AA #3

Rooting Solution Products, Methods, and Trial Rates
For the first and secondary IBA (K-IBA) rooting solution applications use the foliar Spray Drip Down Method®.
Use on leafy cuttings in the growing season.
When doing multiple applications, for the first rooting solution application only the Total Immerse Method or Basal Quick Dip Method can be substituted.

Rooting Solution Products
> Hortus IBA Water Soluble Salts®
> Rhizopon® AA Water Soluble Tablets
Dissolve these products in water to make aqueous IBA (K-IBA) rooting solutions, for all plants propagated from cuttings.
These are the only IBA products labeled for foliar methods.

Basal Quick Dip Method (only used for a first rooting solution application)
The basal ends of the cuttings are dipped about 3/4 inch into the rooting solution then stuck in media.
Rates are established per plant variety.

Spray Drip Down Method® (used for first or secondary rooting solution applications)The cuttings are stuck in media. A skilled worker sprays the rooting solutions onto the leaves until the solution drips down.
Spraying is done soon after sticking or when not under heat stress, such as early morning.

An excess of solution is best rather than a starved liquid volume.
Facility appropriate spray equipment is used such as backpack, hydraulic, booms, or robots.

Total Immerse Method (only used for a first rooting solution application)
The cuttings are totally immersed a few seconds in the rooting solution then stuck in media.

Rooting Solution Trial Rates

Spray Drip Down and Total Immerse Methods (for first time application) trial IBA and rooting solution rates using Hortus IBA Water Soluble Salts.

The first foliar and supplementary applications are at the same rate (IBA ~ K-IBA rates).
> annuals, perennials, chrysanthemums: 80-250 ppm IBA (typical 150-200)
> herbaceous & hard-to-root perennial cuttings: 250-1500 ppm IBA (typical 750-1000)
> woody ornamental cuttings: 300-1500 ppm IBA (typical 750-1000)

 

osteosteospermum study

 

Hortus IBA Water Soluble Salts Hortus IBA Water Soluble Salts make K-IBA rooting solutions
For Distributor referral and Distributor ordering, contact: Phytotronics 314-770-0717,  sales@phytotronics.com

Buy IBA Now: SMALL QUANTITIES ARE AVAILABLE
Rhizopon AA #1 #2 & #3 (dry powder rooting hormones)
Rhizopon AA Water Soluble Tablets (for rooting solutions)
Hortus IBA Water Soluble Salts (for rooting solutions)

Your Source for IBA & Source for KIBA
BUY IBA Now!
(indole butyric acid)
FOR MORE BUY NOW GO TO THE DISTRIBUTOR LIST

HOW MUCH DO YOU NEED?
(CLICK HERE)

Introduction

Site Map

 

For Distributor ordering or referral contact Master Distributor :Phytotronics, 314-770-0717, propagation/growing supplies: phytotronics.com   sales@phytotronics.com

We Welcome Your Questions on Plant Propagation from Cuttings and Hortus IBA & Rhizopon Rooting Products: CLICK HERE to send a messag
e

© Hortus USA Corp. 1990-2017 All Rights Reserved. Spray Drip Down ® , Hortus IBA Water Soluble Salts ® and Hortus USA®  are the registered trademarks of Hortus USA Corp. Rhizopon ® is the registered trademark of Rhizopon b.v. - All Rights Reserved. -

Distributors